Numerical interaction

Theory description

The numerical non-bonded, bond, angle, and torsion potentials can be derived from iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) or reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method. With IBI method, the procedure starts with the potentials of mean force as guessed potentials and then optimizes the potentials iteratively by mapping the structural distributions (i.e., radial distribution function, RDF) onto the ones obtained either from atomistic simulations or from experiments. The resulting numerical potentials usually take the form as a table in which the potential values at discrete grid points of distance are given. In the treatment of tabulated potentials, the initial inputted potential tables on grid points of r are transformed to the tables (arrays) on grid points of \(z = r^2\). With this trick, the \(r = SQRT(r^2)\) in the inner loop of force calculation is avoided, and the force is then calculated by

\begin{eqnarray*} F=-r\frac{\partial V(r)}{\partial r}\frac{1}{r}=-2r\frac{\partial V(z)}{\partial z} \end{eqnarray*}

Within each interval between the grid points, potentials are fitted to a cubic spline function, more specifically, for each \(x_i< x < x_{i+1}\), let \(δ = x - x_i\), \(V(x)\) is represented by

\begin{eqnarray*} V(x)=C_{0}+C_{1}\delta +C_{2}{\delta}^{2}+C_{3}{\delta}^{3} \end{eqnarray*}

where \(x\) corresponds to \(z\), \(\theta\), and \(\varphi\) for particle-particle distance square, bending angle, and torsion angle, respectively. \(i\) is the index of the grid point and \(C_0\) is the starting potential value of each grid point. Other parameters \(C_1\), \(C_2\), and \(C_3\) are chosen to make the values of the first derivative and the second derivative at both ends of interval \(x_i\) and \(x_{i+1}\) equal to the correct values of function V. The interval between two adjacent grids \(\Delta=x_{i+1}-x_i\) should be equal.

The interaction parameters \((C_0, C_1, C_2, C_3)\) can be read from four columns in a file by function setParams() with the formats, such as pair interactions with

Example:

<PairForcePoints>
C0  C1  C2  C3
</PairForcePoints>

The other node names for bond, angle and dihedral are BondForcePoints, AngleForcePoints, and DihedralForcePoints, respectively.

For convenience, the potentials also can be read directively from two columns in a file by function setPotential() with the formats, such as for pair potential

Example:

<PairPotential>
r  potential
</ PairPotential >

With the potential input format, \(x\) corresponds to \(r\) for distance and \(F=-\partial V(r)/\partial r\). The distance or angle points in first column should be in equal interval and the potentials at the corresponding points are given in second column. The angles \(\theta\) and \(\varphi\) are in radians. The other node names for bond, angle and dihedral are BondPotential, AnglePotential, and Dihedralpotential, respectively.

Non-bonded interaction

class PairForceTable(all_info, nlist, npoint)

The constructor of an object of numerical pair force calculation.

Parameters:
  • all_info (AllInfo) – The system information.
  • nlist (NeighborList) – The neighbor list.
  • npoint (int) – The number of numerical points.
setParams(string type1, string type2, float r_cut, string& filename, int scol, int ecol)

specifies the numerical interaction parameters(C0,C1,C2,C3) with type1, type2, cut-off, inputting file name, start column, end column

setPotential(string type1, string type2, std::vector<float2> potential)

specifies the numerical potential with type1, type2, potential array(r, potential)

setPotential(string type1, string type2, string filename, int scol, int ecol)

specifies the numerical potential with type1, type2, inputting file name, start column, end column.

Example:

pair = galamost.PairForceTable(all_info, neighbor_list, 1.3, 2000)
pair.setParams('A', 'A', 1.3, "table.dat", 0, 3)
app.add(pair)

Bond interaction

class BondForceTable(all_info, npoint)

The constructor of an object of numerical bond force calculation.

Parameters:
  • all_info (AllInfo) – The system information.
  • npoint (int) – The number of numerical points.
setParams(string type, float r_cut, string filename, int scol, int ecol)

specifies the numerical bond interaction parameters(C0,C1,C2,C3) with bond type, cut-off, inputting file name, start column, end column.

setPotential(string type, std::vector<float2> potential)

specifies the numerical potential with bond type and the array of potential.

setPotential(string type, string filename, int scol, int ecol)

specifies the numerical potential with bond type, inputting file name, start column, and end column.

Example:

bond = galamost.BondForceTable(all_info, 2000)
bond.setParams('1_1', 2.0, "table.dat", 0, 3)
app.add(bond)

Angle interaction

class AngleForceTable(all_info, npoint)

The constructor of an object of numerical angle force calculation.

Parameters:
  • all_info (AllInfo) – The system information.
  • npoint (int) – The number of numerical points.
setParams(string type, string file name, int scol, int ecol)

specifies the numerical angle force parameters(C0,C1,C2,C3) with angle type, inputting file name, start column, and end column.

setPotential(string type, std::vector<float2> potential)

specifies the numerical potential with angle type and the array of potential(r, potential).

setPotential(string type, string filename, int scol, int ecol)

specifies the numerical potential with angle type, inputting file name, start column, and end column.

Example:

angle = galamost.AngleForceTable(all_info, 500)
angle.setParams('111', "table.dat", 0, 3)
app.add(angle)

Dihedral interaction

class DihedralForceTable(all_info, npoint)

The constructor of an object of numerical dihedral force calculation.

Parameters:
  • all_info (AllInfo) – The system information.
  • npoint (int) – The number of numerical points.
setParams(string type, string filename, int scol, int ecol)

specifies the numerical dihedral force parameters(C0,C1,C2,C3) with dihedral type, inputting file name, start column, end column.

setPotential(string dihedral_type, std::vector<float2> potential)

specifies the numerical potential with dihedral type and the array of potential(r, potential).

setPotential(string dihedral_type, string file, int scol, int ecol)

specifies the numerical potential with dihedral type, inputting file name, start column, end column.

Example:

dihedral = galamost.DihedralForceTable (all_info, 500)
dihedral.setParams('111', "table.dat", 0, 3)
app.add(dihedral)